My main scientific interests lie in an attempt to understand the relationship between motivation and effort. This question interests me principally in the context of individual differencies (e.g. NFC). I’m also interested in motivational and cognitive processes underlying political or religious convictions.

Research projects

Current research projects

Knowledge Resistance: Causes, Consequences and Cures (PI: ÅsaWikforss, Co-Applicant Małgorzata Kossowska), the project founded by RIKSBANKENS JUBILEUMSFOND (#M18-0310:1; 2019-2024)

Effort processes in Cognitive Dissonance Reduction. Motivational Intensity Theory perspective. Preludium grant awarded to Paulina Szwed from National Centre of Science (2020-2023).

Autoverification theory in a context of epistemic motivation. OPUS grant awarded to Ewa Szumowska from the National Centre for Science (2018-21).

Deep  uncertainties in  bioethics: genetic  research,  preventive  medicine,  reproductive decisions. BIO UNCERTAINTY. ERC starting grant awarded to Tomasz Żuradzki from the European Research Council. (2019-24).

Past research projects

Motivational, affective, and cognitive sources of knowledge formation process: Implications for intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup phenomena. MAESTRO Grant awarded to prof. Małgorzata Kossowska by the National Centre for Science (2012-2018).

Laboratory of experimental philosophy: normative implications of the identified victim effect. Interdisciplinary grant awarded to Tomasz Żuradzki from the National Program of Humanities Development (2016-2019).

Motivational rigidity as a striving to sustain an original strategy to perform tasks: evidence from the dual-task paradigm. Grant for young researchers awarded to Ewa Szumowska from the Faculty of Philosopy at the Jagiellonian University. In co-operation with Paulina Szwed (2015-2016).

Political intolerance as an effect of value threat. Grant for young researchers sponsored by the Faculty of Philosopy at Jagiellonian University (DSC grant) awarded to Gabriela Czarnek.


Books in English

Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Szwed, P. (2020). The Psychology of Tolerance in Times of Uncertainty. London: Routledge

Books in Polish

Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Szwed, P. (2018). Tolerancja w czasach niepewności. Psychologiczne mechanizmy zamkniętości – otwartości umysłowej. Sopot: Smak Słowa.

Publications in English

  1. Kossowska, M.,  Szwed, P.,  Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A.,  Perek-Białas, J.,  Szumowska, E.,  Kruglanski, A. W., Gadowska, K.,  Kamińska, M., &  Załuski, W. (2024).  Socio-psychological barriers preventing people from helping in times of crisis: A scoping review. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology,  34(2), e2775.
  2. Kossowska, M., Perek-Białas, J., Blukacz, M., Szwed, P., Szumowska, E., & Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A. (2023). Dynamic of mass mobilizations for helping war refugees:  The role of fear, closeness, and norms. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology.
  3. Kossowska, M., Szwed, P., Szumowska, E., Perek-Białas, J., & Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A. (2023). The role of fear, closeness, and norms in shaping help towards war refugees. Scientific Reports13(1), 1465.
  4. Szumowska, E., Szwed, P., Wójcik, N., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2023). The Interplay of Positivity and Self-Verification Strivings: Feedback Preference Under Increased Desire for Self-Enhancement. Learning & Instruction.
  5. Legate, N., Ngyuen, T. V., Weinstein, N., Moller, A., Legault, L., Vally, Z., … & Ogbonnaya, C. E. (2022). A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119, e2111091119 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111091119.
  6. Szumowska, E., Wójcik, N., Szwed, P., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2022). Says Who? Credibility Effects in Self-Verification Strivings, Psychological Science, 33(5), 699-715. (open access)
  7. Czarnek, G., Kossowska, M., & Szwed, P. (2021). Right-wing ideology reduces the effects of education on climate change beliefs in more developed countries. Nature Climate Change, 11, 9–13. doi: 10.1038/s41558-020-00930-6  Full text available here
  8. Kossowska, M., Szwed, P., Czarnek, G. (2021). Ideology shapes trust in scientists and attitudes towards vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 24(5):720-737. doi:10.1177/13684302211001946   
    Preprint available at
  9. Sekerdej, M., & Szwed, P. (2021). Perceived self-efficacy facilitates critical reflection on one’s own group. Personality and Individual Differences168, 110302.
  10. Szwed, P., Kossowska, M., & Bukowski, M. (2021). Effort investment in uncontrollable situations: The moderating role of motivation toward closure. Motivation and Emotion, 1-11.
  11. Wang K., Goldenberg A., Dorison, C.A., Miller, J.K., Uusberg, A., Lerner, J.S., Gross, J.J., Agesin, B.B., Bernardo, M., Campos, O., Eudave, L., Grzech, K., Ozery, D.H., Jackson, E.A., Luis Garcia, E.O., Drexler, S.M., Jurković, A.P., Rana, K., Wilson, J.P., … Moshontz, H. (2021) A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature Human Behavior 
  12. Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Szwed, P., Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A., & Kruglanski, A. (2020). Helping when the desire is low: Expectancy as a Booster. Motivation & Emotion. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-020-09853-3 Full text available here
  13. Kossowska, M., Szwed, P., Wyczesany, M. (2019). Motivational effects on brain activity: need for closure moderates the impact of task uncertainty on engagement-related P3b NeuroReport, 30, 1179–1183​.​
  14. Czarnek, G., Szwed, P., & Kossowska, M. (2018). Right‐and Left‐wing Prejudice Toward Dissimilar Groups in Cultural and Economic Domains. European Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2548 Full text available here
  15. Kossowska., M., Szwed, P., Wyczesany, M., Czarnek, G., i Wronka, E. (2018). Religious fundamentalism modulates neural responses to error-related words: The role of motivation towards closure. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00285 Full text available here
  16. Kossowska M., Szwed P., Czernatowicz-Kukuczka A., Sekerdej M., & Wyczesany M. (2017) From Threat to Relief: Expressing Prejudice toward Atheists as a Self-Regulatory Strategy Protecting the Religious Orthodox from Threat. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:873. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00873 Full text available here
  17. Szumowska, E., Szwed, P., Kossowska, M., Wright, R. (2017). Multifaceted Effects of Need for Cognitive Closure on Effort: A Cardiovascular Response Study. Motivation Science, 3(4), 369-382. doi: 10.1037/mot0000053Advance online publication
  18. Kossowska, M., Szwed, P., Wronka, E., Czarnek, G., & Wyczesany, M. (2016). Anxiolytic function of fundamentalist beliefs: Neurocognitive evidence. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 390-395. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.039. Full text available here.
  19. Kossowska, M., Czarnek, G., Wyczesany, M., Wronka, E., Szwed, P., & Bukowski, M.(2015). Electrocortical indices of attention correlate with need for closure. NeuroReport, 26, 285-290. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000345.  Full text available here.

Publications in Polish

Czarnek, G., Dragon, P., Szwed, P., & Wojciszke, B. (2017). Kwestionariusz przekonań politycznych: własności psychometryczne [Political Beliefs Questionnaire: Psychometric properties]. Psychologia Społeczna, 41, 205–222. doi: 10.7366/1896180020174108 Full text available here

Chapters in Polish

Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A., Kossowska, M., Czarnek, G., Szumowska, E., & Szwed, P. (in press). Radzenie sobie z niepewnością na poziomie przekonań i sądów społecznych [Dealing with uncertaitny at the level of social judgments and beliefs]. In M. Kofta and A. Rędzio (eds.), Poczucie kontroli i niepewność: Konsekwencje dla rozumienia świata społecznego [The sense of control and uncertainty: Consequnces for understanding the social world]. Warszawa: Liberi Libri.